Fela! Tour Profile

Mar 31, 2010 2:17 PM, By Eric Rudolph

FUSING BROADWAY SOUND WITH CONCERT AMPLIFICATION

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Sound designer Robert Kaplowitz outside of Broadway’s Eugene O’Neill Theatre

Sound designer Robert Kaplowitz outside of Broadway’s Eugene O’Neill Theatre

The two alternating actors playing Kuti (Sahr Ngaujah and Kevin Mambo) often switch between a cardioid handheld mic (used in proximity-effect mode) and a head-worn boom unit. The dramatic difference between the sound of the large-diaphragm handheld Sennheiser SKM 5200 (with Neumann KK104S capsule) and the head-worn mic could have been jarring for the audience, so this was a big issue to address. “The handheld is a 1.9-inch cardioid capsule and the head mic is an 1/8-inch omni,” Kaplowitz notes, emphasizing their wildly different characteristics. Worse still, the head-worn mic is a short boom that places the capsule cheek-side, not in front of the singer’s mouth. Fortunately, the first switch from hand mic to headworn is separated by a musical interlude. “Bill T. Jones [Fela! co-creator/director/choreographer] gave me that interlude during ‘Yellow Fever,’ which has a big sax solo. So people can forget a little bit about the sonic difference.”

The lavs on most performers are Sennheiser MKE-1s, chosen for their brightness and clarity, as well as their “intense ability to withstand sweat.” “Fela” wears a double rig of one MKE-1 (primary) and one Countryman B3 (backup) in a head rig handmade by the deck sound team.

Another ingredient to this sound design is marrying the wildly dramatic movements of the dancers with the tonality of the music. Kaplowitz says they had to “sonically embody the physicality and freewheeling movement of the cast, so we created a complex delay matrix to align—in time, space and volume—all 80 speakers to 13 different individual locations on the stage and in the house, and to two floating zones for the vocals. This creates precise sonic imaging, allowing the audience to close their eyes and still know where each singer is standing.

“We sought an all-encompassing, ‘We’re in the club, there are no boundaries between audience and performers’ sound. The best way to pull the audience into the action was to place them in the middle of it. Nearly everyone in the audience is in the field of full surround: front, side, rear and subwoofers.”

The sonic imaging also effectively sells the conceit that the actors playing Kuti are actually performing his Coltrane-influenced tenor-sax solos, Kaplowitz acknowledges.

But the free use of the entire orchestra level and boxes by the company—they wildly dance through the aisles, box seats and on a long runway at stage right—creates issues in a house filled with 80 speakers set up for surround. Several mix-minus zones were added to allow the lav mics to be right in front of vocals-only speakers. “The speakers in mix-minus zones will either be off or down 12 dB,” Kaplowitz explains.

They tried to make in-ear monitoring work, but “the actors struggled with being somewhat sonically isolated from the audience,” Kaplowitz says. “The men playing Fela really wanted to not only hear the audience comments, but to localize them and respond.”

Instead, the show relies on a full onstage monitor system comprising 15 speakers and a dedicated monitor mixer and console. (As the wings were packed, the monitor desk—a Yamaha M7CL-48 with 48 inputs and 24 outputs, all in use—is located in the basement.) “We’ve put monitors everywhere: Two are set into the deck downstage, a set lines the underside of the runway, one is upstage-left under the catwalk and a few [are] in the wings,” Kaplowitz explains. “Using a lot of focused speakers, no single box has to be blaring; we’re not asking for wedges to cover 30 feet.” Monitors include four L-Acoustics 108Ps and eight MTD 108s (powered and unpowered versions of the same wedges), as well as three EAW MicroWedges.

Front-of-house console is a Yamaha PM1DV2, using 92 inputs and 66 outputs, and redundant DSP1D digital audio mixing systems. The three digital mixing engines are at full capacity thanks to the effects, surround and sonic imaging. Four Summit DCL 200 tube compressors add vintage ’70s warmth to the lead vocals and the band’s four horns.

Kaplowitz is living with an odd assemblage of gear due to budgetary issues, noting the FOH board is old enough that it uses SCSI cables. “We have an odd mixed system, but it all works and is reliable,” he notes. “I’m really happy with the results. We responded to Bill T. Jones’ vision from beginning to end, and made a piece of art that’s wildly entertaining. I think that’s in sync with Fela’s spirit.” 


Eric Rudolph—a New York City–based writer and lifelong audio aficionado—saw Fela Kuti perform in New York in the mid-’80s.






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